Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Common Entrance Test For PhD (IGKV-CET) - Syllabus For Soil And Water Engineering Department

UNIT I:
Properties affecting groundwater storage and movement, groundwater balance studies, Well hydraulics, two dimensional flow, steady and unsteady state flow in confined, unconfined and semi-confined aquifers, steady flow in sloping aquifers, partial penetrating wells. Analysis of multi-aquifers. Flow analysis in interfering wells. Pumping tests and determination of aquifer parameters. Groundwater modeling for water resources planning. Techniques for groundwater recharge. Basic hydraulic design of centrifugal pump, water hammering problem in centrifugal pump. Principle and performance characteristics of vertical turbine pump, submersible pump and axial flow pump and their design. Non￾conventional energy sources for pumping, wind mills, micro turbines, solar pumps, hydraulic ram- their selection and design criteria. Design of pumping station, techno-economic evaluation. Energy conservation measures for pumpingsystems.

UNIT II:
Hydrologic processes and systems; Hydrologic problems of small watersheds;
Hydrologic characteristics of watersheds. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic parameters, rainfall- runoff models, stream flow measurement and analysis of data. Hydrograph analysis; Unit hydrograph theory; Synthetic and dimension less hydrograph, convolution of unit hydrograph. Concept of hydraulic flood routing, flood routing (reservoir and channel routing). Definition and concept of different types of hydrologic models for simulation of hydrologic problems. Problems of desertification and degradation. Models of sediment yield. Survey, monitoring, reclamation and conservation of agricultural and forest lands, hill slopes and ravines. Concept of operational watershed. National land use policy, legal and social aspects. Principles of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) and its application in natural resources management.Watershed management research; instrumentation and measurement, problem identification, simulation and synthesis Modeling of flood and drought phenomenon, drought management and dry farming.

UNIT III:
Concepts of Irrigation; Irrigation principles, losses, conveyance, distribution;
Application efficiencies. Scheduling parameters, water budgeting. Surface irrigation, hydraulics of water advance and recession, hydraulic resistance to flow, gravity irrigation. Design of Border irrigation, furrow irrigation, check basin irrigation; Sub Irrigation methods and concepts. Preliminary design criteria of sprinkler and micro irrigation systems, hydraulics of sprinkler and micro irrigation systems. Design of lateral, sub main and main line of sprinkler and micro irrigation. Fertigation aspects. Underground water conveyance system; Evaluation of irrigation systems and practices.

UNIT IV:
Theories and applications of surface and sub-surface drainage, steady state, unsteady state drainage equations for layered and non-layered soils, horizontal sub-surface drainage. Principle and applications of Earnst, Glover Dumm, Kraijenhoff-van-deleur equations. Salt balance, leaching requirement and management practices under drained conditions. Design of different components of sub-surface drainage systems, theories of vertical drainage and multiple well point system. Disposal of drainage effluents, Management of drainage projects of waterlogged and saline soils, casestudies.

UNIT V:
Concepts and significance of optimization in water resources, objective functions, deterministic and stochastic inputs. Mathematical programming techniques, linear programming and its extension: gradient method, simplex method, non-linear programming classical optimization. Geometric programming and dynamic programming, application of optimization techniques for water resources. Development and management including conjunctive use, crop production functions and irrigation optimization.

UNIT VI:
Open channel and their properties. Energy and momentum principles. Critical flow computations and applications. Uniform flow. Its development. Formula and design computation. Boundary layer concept. Surface roughness. Velocity distribution and instability of uniform flow. Gradually varied flow theory and analysis. Method of computations. Hydraulic jump and its use as levelling energy dissipation Spatially varied flow. Unsteady flow. Rapidly variedflow

2022