Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Common Entrance Test For PhD (IGKV-CET) - Syllabus For Agrometeorology Department

UNIT-1: Fundamentals of Meteorology and Climatology
Solar radiation and laws of radiation, heat balance of the earth and atmosphere. Variation of
pressure and temperature with height, potential temperature, pressure gradient, cyclonic and
anticyclonic motions; geostropic and gradient winds. Equations of motion, general circulation,
turbulence, vorticity, atmospheric waves. Gas laws, laws of thermodynamics and their
application to atmosphere, Water vapour in the atmosphere, various humidity parameters and
their interrelationships, psychrometric equation, saturation deficit, stability and instability
conditions in the atmosphere. Lapse rates-ascent of dry and moist air, condensation, clouds and
their classification, rainfall. The hydrological cycle; precipitation processes, artificial
rainmaking, thunderstorms and dust storm; haze, mist, fog, and dew; air masses and fronts;
tropical and extra-tropical cyclones.

UNIT-2: Micrometeorology
Properties of atmosphere near the earth's surface; exchange of mass momentum and energy
between surface and overlaying atmosphere, exchange coefficient, similarity hypothesis,
shearing stress, forced and free convection. Energy balance in atmosphere and crop canopy.
Molecular and eddy transport of heat, water vapour and momentum, frictional effects, eddy
diffusion, mixing, temperature instability. Richardson number, Raymonds analogy, Exchange
coefficients. Theories of evapotranspiration and their comparison, concepts of potential,
reference and actual evapotranspiration- modified techniques. Water balance and other methods.
Water budgeting. Water use efficiency and antitranspirants, Kc values and their use.
Modification of microclimate due to cultural practices, intercropping; radiation distribution and
utilization by plant communities, leaf temperature and its biological effects. Influence of
topography on microclimate; shelter belts and wind breaks, energy balance over crops, LAI and
biomass estimation. Remote sensing in relation to micrometeorology.

UNIT-3: Weather Forecasting and Agromet Advisory Services
Climate classification, agro-climatic zones and agro-ecological regions of India. Crop weather
calendars; weather forecasts for agriculture at short, medium and long range levels; agromet
advisories, preparation, dissemination and economic impact analysis; use of satellite imageries
in weather forecasting; synoptic charts and synoptic approach to weather forecasting.

UNIT-4: Crop Weather Models
Concepts of mechanistic and deterministic models; general features of dynamical and statistical
modelling techniques; weather data and phenology-based approaches to crop modeling;
verification, calibration and validation of models. Empirical and statistical crop weather models,
their application with examples. Regression models, Crop simulation models e. g. CERES,
WOFOST, SPAW, RESCAP, WTGROW, BRASSICA, RESCAP etc., Forecasting of pests and

UNIT-5: Agrometeorological Measurements and Instrumentation
Instruments for measurement of meteorological elements; barometers, thermometers,
psychrometers, hair hygrometer, thermo-hygrograph; exposure and operation of meteorological
instruments/equipments in agromet observatories. Radiation and temperature instruments:
albedometer, photometer, spectro-radiometer, sunshine recorder. Quantum radiation sensors, pressure bomb apparatus, thermographs and infra-red thermometer. Precipitation and dew
instruments: Ordinary rain gauge, self recording rain gauge, duv-devani dew gauges, dew
recorder. Wind instruments: anemometer, wind vane, anemograph Evapotranspiration:
lysimeters, open pan evaporimeters, estimation of evapotranspiration through satellite imageries
– MODIS, TERRA, AQUA, AVHRR, NOVA etc., Photosynthesis instruments: porometer,
photosynthesis system, leaf area meter. Soil thermometers, soil heat flux plates, instruments for
measuring soil moisture. Automatic weather station.

UNIT-6: Weather Modification and Risk Management Strategies
Concept, definition, types of drought and their causes, monitoring, prediction and prevention of
drought, drought proofing and management; modern tools including remote sensing and GIS in
monitoring and combating droughts, crop water stress index, crop stress detection; Air pollution
and its influence on vegetation. Meteorological aspects of forest fires and their control.
Historical reviews of weather modification, present status of weather modification for
agriculture. Scientific advances in clouds and electrical behaviour of clouds, hails suppression,
dissipation of fog, modification of frost intensity and severe storms, mulches and anti￾transpirants. Risk characterization - definitions and classification of risks; characterization of
weather and climate related risks in agriculture; water related risks; radiation/heat related risks;
air and its movement related risks; biomass related risks; social and economic risk factors
related to weather and climate. Challenges to coping strategies - combining challenges to
disaster risk mainstreaming, mitigation practices, contingency planning and responses.

UNIT-7: Climatic Change and Climatic Variability
Climatic change, climatic variability, green house effect, global warming and their impact on
agriculture. Impact of natural and induced variability of climate on crop production. El Nino, la
Nino and ENSO